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GRADE TEN --LESSON TWELVE
The material in this lesson represents approximately five days of work for most students assisted daily by an at-home teacher. Students do best when the at-home teacher and student together cover every subject, every day. Feel free to progress through this material at the pace that best suits you both.
Please use the Internet, books, magazines, articles and other research materials to find additional information on a subject. It is always a good idea to research topics through a variety of sources
Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
SCENE I. The plains of Philippi.
Enter OCTAVIUS, ANTONY, and their army
Now, Antony, our hopes are answered:
Tut, I am in their bosoms, and I know
I do not cross you; but I will do so. March Drum. Enter BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and their Army; LUCILIUS, TITINIUS, MESSALA, and others
Stand fast, Titinius: we must out and talk.
Villains, you did not so, when your vile daggers
Come, come, the cause: if arguing make us sweat,
O, if thou
wert the noblest of thy strain,
A peevish schoolboy, worthless of such
Ho, Lucilius! hark, a word with you.
[Standing forth] My lord? BRUTUS and LUCILIUS converse apart
Even so, Lucilius.
Now, most noble Brutus,
Even by the rule of that philosophy
No, Cassius, no: think not, thou noble Roman,
SCENE II. The same. The field of battle. Alarum. Enter BRUTUS and MESSALA
ride, Messala, ride, and give these bills
SCENE III. Another part of the field. Alarums. Enter CASSIUS and TITINIUS
if thou lovest me,
So, I am free; yet would not so have been,
Is not that he t hat lies upon the ground?
No, this was he,
Mistrust of good success hath done this deed.
What, Pindarus! where art thou, Pindarus?
whilst I go to meet
Why didst thou send me forth, brave Cassius?
Where, where, Messala, doth his body lie?
Lo, yonder, and Titinius mourning it.
Titinius' face is upward.
Are yet two Romans living such as these?
SCENE IV. Another part of the field. Alarum. Enter fighting, Soldiers of both armies; then BRUTUS, CATO, LUCILIUS, and others
Yield, or thou diest.
Kill Brutus, and be honour'd in his death.
I'll tell the news. Here comes the general. Enter ANTONY
Brutus is ta'en, Brutus is ta'en, my lord.
Safe, Antony; Brutus is safe enough:
This is not Brutus, friend; but, I assure you,
SCENE V. Another part of the field.Enter BRUTUS, DARDANIUS, CLITUS, STRATO, and VOLUMNIUS
show'd the torch-light, but, my lord,
Hark thee, Dardanius. Whispers
To kill him, Clitus. Look, he meditates.
Come hither, good Volumnius; list a word.
It is more worthy to leap in ourselves,
That's not an office for a friend, my lord. Alarum still
Farewell to you; and you; and you,
Hence! I will follow. Exeunt CLITUS, DARDANIUS, and VOLUMNIUS
Strato, stay thou by thy lord:
Farewell, good Strato. Runs on his sword
My master's man. Strato, where is thy master?
Ay, if Messala will prefer me to you.
Do so, good Messala.
How died my master, Strato?
This was the noblest Roman of them all:
According to his virtue let us use him,
Answer these questions in your notes.
1. Brutus makes two fatal mistakes in Julius Caesar, each stemming from his idealized vision of the assassination and from the image of himself as an "honorable man." One error occurs in Act II, and one in Act III. Discuss these errors, and trace the events they set in motion that bring about Brutus's downfall.
2. The play makes clear that during the Roman Republic, few words inspired such anxiety in the Romans as the word king. Even thought the last king had been driven out of Rome nearly five centuries before the time of Julius Caesar, the Romans long remembered the evils that their ancestors had experienced under such rule.
a. Looking back at the portrayal of Julius Caesar in the play, do you think that the anxieties of Brutus and others about Caesar's potential "kingship" were justified?
b. How do you think Shakespeare's Elizabethan audience, living under a benevolent but absolute monarchy at the time the play was presented, might have regarded this choice between the evils of dictatorship and the evils of anarchy and social chaos?
c. How would people today feel about this problem of "two evils"? Which "evil" would people today fear more?
Famous Passages from the Play
1. Why, man, he
doth bestride the narrow world
___ 1. After the
police car came the fire engines.
___ 2. After the
police car came the fire engines.
___ 3. He left the
car with ten dollars and the girl.
___ 4. She cut her
long hair with the scissors.
___ 5. Father
arrived just as we sat down to dinner.
___ 6. Around the
corner came the long-distance runners.
1. Ted bought only
five goldfish for his little brother.
2. The teacher gave
Bess a spelling test after school.
3. The young pilot
learned to fly a helicopter.
Set II: Add just to each sentence so that it has the meaning given.
1. Aunt Carol lent
Barbara her red dress.
2. The carpenter
replaced one board on the porch.
Midpoint and Slope
In algebra you graphed points and lines on the Cartesian coordinate system. So far in this text you have practiced graphing points in the exercise sets. In algebra, you were probably given a rule for finding the midpoint of a segment and another rule for finding the slope of a line. In this lesson you'll rediscover these rules. If you already know them, the following should help you better understand the rules. Let's take a look.
Estimate the coordinates of the midpoints of IJ and KL. How would you find the coordinates of the midpoints of any segment without having to graph the segment and estimate the midpoints' coordinates?
Let's look again at Cases 1-3 by completing the statements below.
How does the x-coordinate of the midpoint of each segment compare with the
x-coordinates of the segment's endpoints? How does the y-coordinates of the
midpoint compare with the y-coordinates of the segment's endpoints? Are you
ready to make a conjecture? Compare your results with the results of others
near you. State a conjecture and add it to your conjecture list.
Perhaps the most useful characteristic of a line in the coordinate plane is its slope. The slope of a line is a measure of its incline or steepness. The grade of a road is a measure of its steepness or slope. The pitch of a roof is a measure of its slope. The incline of a ramp is a measure of its slope.
If a road rises a vertical distance of 50 meters for every run, or horizontal distance, of 300 meters, then the grade, or slope, of the road is 1/6 and is calculated using the formula below.
Let's take a closer look at this notion of rise over run for slope. How would
you find another three points that lie on AB?
What if the two points are so far away from each other that counting on the graph to find the rise and run is too difficult? How can you use the coordinates of the two points to calculate the rise and run, and thus the slope? For example, what is the slope of GH? You should get a slope of 23/19.
How can you find the rise from the y-coordinates of the points? How can you find the run? State a conjecture and add it to your conjecture list
1. Without calculating them, determine whether the slope of AB, CD, EF,and GH is positive, negative, 0, or undefined.
Revolutions and Changes of Government
Charles's actions caused trouble in France. Since 1789 the nation had learned too much about throwing off autocratic rule to accept these changes peacefully. In July 1830 a revolt spread throughout the country. Faced with growing hostility, Charles X abdicated.
The successful revolt in France inspired revolutions elsewhere. Two months after Charles's abdication in 1830, for example, the Belgians declared independence from their Dutch rulers.
Louis Philippe, the
The Revolutions of 1848
The publication of the decree sparked riots in Paris. The disorders did not seem serious until the National Guard, summoned to restore order, joined the rioters. The disturbances forced Louis Philippe to abdicate and flee to England.
The people of Paris established a temporary government and proclaimed the Second French Republic in 1848. (The First Republic had lasted from 1792 until 1804, when Napoleon became emperor.) The most active group in the new government consisted of the urban working classes, whose leaders believed in socialism. Because economic depression and widespread unemployment had paralyzed France, the socialist members of the government established "national workshops" to give people work. This action marked the first appearance in modern times of the idea that the government has a responsibility to remedy chronic unemployment.
In December 1848 the Republic held its first elections. Instead of electing as president someone who had helped to create the Second Republic, however, the voters overwhelmingly chose Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon.
Louis Napoleon now employed the plebiscite, a device his uncle had used so successfully. He asked the French people to permit him to draft a new constitution for the Second French Republic. Most people believed that he was defending law and order. They voted almost 12 to 1 in his favor.
The Second French
In 1852 Louis Napoleon held another plebiscite for another constitution. By cleverly manipulating the votes. Louis Napoleon won consent to take the title Emperor Napoleon III. (He called himself the "third" Napoleon because Napoleon I had had a son. "Napoleon II" had never reigned and died in 1832.)
Problems in the Crimea
Because of earlier agreements, Russia claimed the right to protect all Orthodox Christians living under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. Similarly, France protected the Roman Catholics. In the 1850s both Russia and France claimed jurisdiction over certain holy places in Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans granted privileges to the Roman Catholics but did not do the same for the Orthodox Christians. The czar demanded these same privileges fort eh Orthodox Christians. Napoleon III took a firm stand against these Russian demands and formed an alliance with Great Britain, which feared Russian expansion toward the eastern Mediterranean.
The Ottoman Turks, backed by France and Great Britain, resisted Russian claims in the Palestine dispute. The three allies declared war in March 1854, and full-scale fighting began six months later. The fighting took place mostly in the Crimea, in southern Russia.
Napoleon really hoped that Prussia would back down and that war would not be necessary. However, Otto von Bismarck, the head of the Prussian government, had decided that war with France would help to achieve German unification. Bismarck made a series of clever maneuvers that angered the French, and in July 1870 the French legislature declared war on Prussia.
Immediately after the capture of Napoleon III, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed the fall of the Second French Empire and the establishment of a Third Republic. The new government tried to defend the nation, but Paris fell to the Prussians in January 1871, signifying the end of the war.
France Under German
The Third Republic
The Third Republic included a president, elected by the legislature for a term of seven years. The cabinet of ministers had to approve the president's actions and was responsible for government policy. Although the constitution did not specifically provide for a premier, or prime minister, the position soon became established.
The Dreyfus case
The real traitor was discovered, but the army cleared him. Emile Zola, a famous French novelist, wrote an open letter, "J'Accuse" ("I Accuse"), in which he paced blame on the army command and its supporters for this scandal. Although many responsible for the false charges against Dreyfus confessed, his name was not cleared until 1906.
The Dreyfus case led to a clash between the two major groups in France - those who had condemned Dreyfus and supported the army, and those who supported his cause.
The existence of many different political parties caused political instability in France in the early 1900s. The parties ranged from the monarchists on the far right to radical socialists on the far left. Major parties contained a number of "splinter groups," or smaller divisions. No one party ever completely controlled the French government. In order to get anything done, parties temporarily united to form coalitions, or political groups organized in support of a common cause.
The Nations of Latin
America Gained Independence
Indians and blacks shared the bottom of the social pyramid. Many of them did not speak the language of the ruling class. Furthermore, laws upheld racial distinctions.
By the 1700s people of mixed race became the majority in Latin American society: Mestizos were of Indian and white background, and mulattoes were od black and white ancestry. Distribution of mestizos and mulattoes varied considerably. For example, mestizos became prominent in Mexico, but in Brazil mulattoes became the largest group. Metizos and mulattoes usually faced social and racial barriers constructed by the peninsulars and creoles. In the Andes, southern Mexico, and parts of Central America, Indians remained the largest group.
In Haiti a small number of French planters grew sugarcane and coffee trees on plantations tended by African slaves. When the French Revolution broke out, the free mulattoes demanded the same rights as French settlers. In 1794 the black slave population rebelled. Mulattoes and blacks united under the leadership of Francois-Dominique Toussaint-Louverture (too.SAN loo.ver.TOOR), a freed slave, and won control of the island.
Napoleon sent an army to try to reestablish French authority. The French captured Louverture, and he died a prisoner in France in 1803. Later, a rebel army defeated the French army and killed or drove out many of the white settlers. Haiti proclaimed its independence in 1804.
Spanish South America
The first revolt against Spain took place in 1810 in the southernmost viceroyalty of La Plata. Creole rebels seized control of the government, and six years later, they declared the independence of the United Provinces of La Plata, later named Argentina. Meanwhile, Paraguay declared its own independence.
In the rest of South America, the struggle turned into a long and bloody civil war led by Simón Bolívar, called "the Liberator" by Latin Americans. Bolívar started the revolt in this native city of Caracas in 1810. He did not succeed in destroying Spain's power in the viceroyalty of New Granada until 1819. Then he raised another army in what is now Venezuela, crossed the Andes, and defeated the Spanish at Boyacá (bah.yuh.CHAY).
Bolívar became president, with almost absolute power, of a new nation called Great Colombia. The new nation included the present-day countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama.
Meanwhile an Argentine general, José de San Martín, gathered an army and made a difficult crossing of the Andes into the region known as Chile. He joined forces with the Chileans, led by Bernardo O'Higgins, and overcame Spanish resistance there in 1818.
From Chile, San Martín's forces sailed north to capture the city of Lima in Peru. The Spanish viceroy fled, and San Martín declared the independence of Peru in 1821. Royalist forces, however, remained in parts of Peru. Internal squabbling among the independence leaders led some Peruvians to invite Bolívar to help them defeat the Spanish. San Martín then withdrew, turning leadership over to the ambitious Bolìvar.
In August 1824 Bolívar won a major victory over the forces led by the Spanish viceroy at Junín (hoo.NEEN) in Peru. By December of that year, the revolutionaries achieved total victory over the forces loyal to Spain at Ayacucho (eye.uh.KOO.choh). Peru was free. In 1825 the northern territory of Upper Peru became a separate republic, named Bolivia in honor of Bolívar.
The Portuguese then tried to return Brazil to the status of a colony. Angered Brazilian creoles persuaded Pedro, King John's son who had stayed in Brazil, to become ruler of an independent Brazil. Brazil declared its independence as a constitutional monarchy in 1822, and Pedro I ruled as its emperor until 1831.
The new nations of Brazil and Argentina struggled over territory that lay between them. patriots in this disputed territory gained independence in 1825, calling their new country Uruguay.
Almost all of Latin America and thus become independent by 1825. Portugal lost its entire New World empire. The Spanish lost all their colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico. Elsewhere in the region, only a few Caribbean islands, parts of Central America, the Guianas, and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) remained under colonial rule.
Latin American Unity
The Structure of RNA
RNA, like DNA, consists of a long chain of macromolecules made up of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The alternating sugars and phosphate groups form the backbone of the RNA chain.
There are three major differences between RNA and DNA. The sugar in RNA is ribose, whereas the sugar in DNA is deoxy-ribose. Another difference between RNA and DNA is that RNA consists of a single strand of nucleotides, although it can form double-stranded sections by folding back on itself in loops. DNA, as you will recall, is double-stranded. Lastly, the nitrogeneous bases found in DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. RNA also contains adenine, cytosine, and guanine, but uracil (YOOR-uh-sihl) is present instead of thymine. Like DNA, RNA follows the base-pairing rules. Adenine bonds to uracil, and cytosine bonds to guanine.
Although a cell contains many different forms of RNA, there are three main types that are involved in expressing the genetic code. Each of the three main types of RNA will be discussed later in this section.
In its own way, an RNA molecule is a disposable copy of a segment of DNA. The ability to copy a DNA base sequence into RNA makes it possible for a specific place on the DNA molecule to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules with the same informs Dation aNA.
Why is it necessary for DNA to transfer its genetic information to RNA? Recall that DNA is found in the nucleus and ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm. Because DNA does not leave the nucleus, a messenger, or carrier, must bring the genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus out to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. The molecule that performs this function is messenger RNA (mRNA), one of the three main types of RNA.
In order to more fully understand how transcription takes place, we must discuss the role that an enzyme known as RNA polymerase (PAHL-ih-mer-ayz) plays in this process. An enzyme is specific, that is, it works on only on e substance. For this reason, part of its name is usually derived from the substance on which it works. Then the suffix -ase is added. Thus RNA polymerase works on the polymers RNA and DNA.
During transcription, RNA polymerase attaches to special places on the DNA molecule, separates the two strands of the double helix, and synthesizes a messenger RNA strand. The messenger RNA strand is complementary to one of the DNA strands. The base-pairing mechanism ensures that the messenger RNA will be a complementary copy of the DNA strand that serves as its template.
Special sequences in DNA serve as "start signals" and are recognized by RNA polymerase and other proteins associated with transcription. Other areas on the DNA molecule are recognized as termination sites where RNA polymerase releases the newly synthesized messenger RNA molecules.
The nitrogenous bases in DNA contain information that directs protein synthesis. Why proteins and not other molecules? you might ask. The answer can be found in the diversity of things that proteins are capable of doing. Because most enzymes are proteins, proteins control biochemical pathways within the cell. Not only do proteins direct the synthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides, but they are also responsible for cell structure and cell movement. Like the manager of a factory, DNA does not work on the assembly line but can control what the cell factory makes by issuing orders to the organelles (workers). Together, DNA and its assistant, RNA, are directly responsible for making proteins. As you can see, DNA and RNA are like nucleic-acid executives who run the entire cell factory.
The Nature of
the Genetic Code
As you know, DNA and RNA each contain different nitrogenous bases (DNA contains A, T, D, G; RNA contains A, U, C, G); hence, different nucleotides. For this reason, the genetic code must have a four-letter "alphabet." In order to code for the 20 different amino acids, more than one nucleotide must make up the code word for each amino acid. If code words were two nucleotides long, there would be 42, or 16, different code words. This is not enough for 20 amino acids. The four nucleotides arranged in triplets, or three, however, produce 43, or 64, different code words. This is more than enough to produce a different code word for each amino acid. Therefore, the smallest size for a code word in DNA is three nucleotides.
The code words of the DNA nucleotides are copied onto a strand of messenger RNA. Each combination of three nucleotides on the messenger RNA is called a codon (KOH-dohn), or three-letter code word. Each codon specifies a particular amino acid that is to be placed in the polypeptide chain. It is interesting to note that there is more than one codon for each amino acid. For example, the amino acid leucine (LOO-seen) has six different codons. There is also one codon, AUG, that can either specify the amino acid methionine (muh-THIGH-uh-neen) or serve as a starter for the synthesis of a protein. For this reason, AUG is called an "initiator" codon. Notice also that there are three "stop" codons. They do not code for an amino acid. Instead, these codons act like period at the end of a sentence: They signify the end of a polypeptide.
The genetic code consists of 64 codons along with their corresponding amino acids. These codons are found on messenger RNA. Of the 64 codons, 61 specify a particular amino acid. The other three are stop codons, which signify the end of polypeptide chain.
The Role of Transfer
In the drawing at right, you will notice that there are three exposed bases on
each transfer RNA molecule. These nucleotides will base pair with a codon on
messenger RNA. Because the three nucleotides on transfer RNA are complementary
to the three nucleotides on messenger RNA, the three transfer RNA nucleotides
are called the anticodon.
The Role of Ribosome
The first part of protein synthesis occurs when the two subunits of the ribosome bind to a molecule of messenger RNA. Then the initiator codon AUG binds to the first anticodon of transfer RNA, signaling the beginning of a polypeptide chain. Soon the anticodon of another transfer RNA binds to the next messenger RNA codon. This second transfer RNA carries the second amino acid that will be placed into the chain of the polypeptide.
As each anticodon and codon bind together, a peptide bond forms between the two amino acids. A peptide bond is the covalent bond that joins tow amino acids together. The polypeptide chain continues to grow until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the messenger RNA. A stop codon is a codon for which no transfer RNA molecule exist. When the stop codon reaches the ribosome, the ribosome releases the newly formed polypeptide and messenger RNA, completing the process of translation.
As you can now see, the ribosome, in its own way, is at the center of the whole business of making the genetic code work. In the nucleus, DNA directs the formation of three different kinds of RNA: transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and messenger RNA. They all leave the nucleus and then seem to go their separate ways. Despite these different paths, however, they all meet again in the ribosome where protein synthesis takes place. So the ribosome can be considered the place where a kind of "class reunion" of RNA molecules occurs. Here each type of RNA molecule plays a role in carrying out the instructions specified in the genetic code. And the genetic code stores the program for protein synthesis and passes it on from generation to generation.
c. 1426-30, Venice
GIOVANNI BELLINI, like his brother Gentile Bellini, began his career as an assistant in the studio of his father, Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400-70). His early work, executed in tempera, reflected a confluence of Byzantine stiffness and the analytical precision of the Flemish. Soon Bellini trained himself to become one of the early masters in the techniques of oil painting. He was later influenced by Donatello (to whose works he was exposed while executing with his father and brother the Pala Gattamelata for the Church of Sant'Antonio da Padova) and by the work of his sister's husband, Andrea Mantegna.
By 1479 Bellini had succeeded his brother in executing a cycle of great historical scenes for the Chamber of the Grand Council [Maggior Consiglio] in the Doge's Palace. Giovanni Bellini's six or seven canvases in the series, acclaimed as among his masterpieces, were destroyed in the devastating Palace fire of 1577.
The theme of Madonna and Child recurs frequently in Bellini's work.
comments in Giovanni Bellini [p. 4], "Bellini's paintings are
characterized by a strange, subtle tension that always binds the mother and
child in a relationship of profound pathos." One of Bellini's most masterful
works is the Madonna and Child enthroned with SS. Peter, Catherine, Luisa and
Jerome, painted in 1505 when he was approximately 75 years old. The painting
is in the Church of S. Zaccaria. Bellini's late
work, however, is characterized by highly naturalistic landscapes.
In 1506 Bellini's brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna died after completing only one of a cycle of four paintings commissioned by Cav. Proc. (later Cardinal) Francesco Cornaro (B-60). Thereupon, Cornaro turned to Bellini to execute, with his studio, The Continence of Scipio, perhaps based on a drawing by Mantegna. (See P. F. Brown, Venice and Antiquity [New Haven, 1996], pp. 252-5.) The painter and art historian Giorgio Vasari noted in 1568 that Giorgio Cornaro (presum. H-4, the nephew of Cardinal Cav. Proc. Francesco) had in his colletion at that time another of Giovanni Bellini's paintings, Cena at Emaus; that work, although recorded in an engraving and several derivations by another artist, has not survived.
In The Uffizi: A Guide to the Gallery [Venice: Edizione Storti, 1980, p. 60] Umberto Fortis has noted that "Bellini with his absorption of the achievements of the greatest masters of the age traces the development of Venetian Humanism itself in his own evolution as a painter, to attain a superior, serene autonomy of compositional values."
Bellini trained many younger artists in his workshop, including Giorgione, Titian, Jacopo da Montagna, Rondinello da Ravenna and Benedetto Coda of Ferrara. He was recognized in his own time as the leading painter of his period. Upon visiting Venice in 1506, the German artist Albrecht Durer wrote: "He is the best painter of them all." The prominent writers of his time also joined in his praise, including Pietro Bembo in his verses and Ariosto in Orlando Furioso, Canto 33. In Vasari's words, "There is no lack at Venice of those who endeavored to honor him when dead with sonnets and epigrams, just as he had honored his country when alive."