HH00546_.WMF (3718 bytes)Special Notices to Parents:

The school year consists of twenty-eight lessons and seven examinations. 

Each lesson covers five subjects - Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Science, Science and Fine Arts.

Clayborn Hall sends an examination on five subjects  for each student after every fourth lesson.  Elementary students have various short projects during the year.  Students in the seventh grade through the twelfth grade have year long projects.  High school students must write three five-paragraph essays each year. 

Clayborn Hall maintains student records and transcripts and makes them available to other schools or colleges upon your request.

This sample lesson is provided for your information only and is protected by copyrights.


Clayborn Hall Lessons
 

GRADE EIGHT -- LESSON ONE

The material in this lesson represents approximately five days of work for most students assisted daily by an at-home teacher. Students do best when the at-home teacher and student together cover every subject, every day. Feel free to progress through this material at the pace that best suits you both.

Please use the Internet, books, magazines, articles and other research materials to find additional information on a subject. It is always a good idea to research topics through a variety of sources.
 

Literature

Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) is an American woman who won the Nobel Prize for Literature.  Toni Morrison, another American, won in 1993.  Pearl was born in West Virginia, but she grew up in China because her parents were Presbyterian ministers there. Many of her works take place in China, including The Good Earth. In such works Buck hoped to create better understanding among different peoples. "Christmas Day in the Morning" is not about China. However, it is about human understanding.


Pearl S. Buck

Christmas Day in the Morning

He woke suddenly and completely. It was four o’clock, the hour at which his father had always called him to get up and help with the milking. Strange how the habits of his youth clung to him still! Fifty years ago, and his father had been dead for thirty years, and yet he woke at four o’clock in the morning. He had trained himself to turn over and go to sleep, but this morning, because it was Christmas, he did not try to sleep.

Yet what was the magic of Christmas now? His childhood and youth were long past, and his own children had grown up and gone. Some of them lived only a few miles away, but they had their own families, and they would come in as usual toward the end of the day. They had explained with infinite gentleness that they wanted their children to build Christmas memories about their houses, not his. He was left alone with his wife.

Yesterday she had said, "It isn’t worthwhile, perhaps--"

And he had said, "Oh, yes, Alice, even if there are only the two of us, let’s have a Christmas of our own."

Then she had said, "Let’s not trim the tree until tomorrow, Robert. Just so it’s ready when the children come. I’m tired."

He had agreed, and the tree was still out in the back entry.

Why did he feel so awake tonight? For it was still night, a clear and starry night. No moon, of course, but the stars were extraordinary! Now that he thought of it, the stars seemed always large and clear before the dawn of Christmas Day. There was one star now that was certainly larger and brighter than any of the others. He could even imagine it moving, as it had seemed to him to move one night long ago.

He slipped back in time, as he did so easily nowadays. He was fifteen years old and still on his father’s farm. He loved his father. He had not known it until one time a few days before Christmas, when he had overheard what his father was saying to his mother.

"Mary, I hate to call Rob in the mornings. He’s growing so fast and he needs his sleep. If you could see how he sleeps when I go in to wake him up! I wish I could manage alone."

"Well, you can’t, Adam." His mother’s voice was brisk. "Besides, he isn’t a child anymore. It’s time he took his turn."

"Yes," his father said slowly. "But I sure do hate to wake him."

When he heard these words, something in him woke. His father loved him! He had never thought of it before, taking for granted the tie of their blood. Neither his father nor his mother talked about their children; they had no time for such things. There was always so much to do on a farm.

Now he knew his father loved him, there would be no more loitering in the mornings and having to be called again. He got up after that, stumbling blind with sleep, and pulled on his clothes, his eyes tight shut, but he got up.

And then on the night before Christmas, that year when he was fifteen, he lay for a few minutes thinking about the next day. They were poor, and most of the excitement was in the turkey they had raised themselves and in the mince pies his mother made. His sisters sewed presents, and his mother and father always bought something he needed, not only a warm jacket, maybe, but something more, such as a book. And he saved and bought them each something too.

He wished, that Christmas he was fifteen, he had a better present for his father. As usual he had gone to the ten-cent store and bought a tie. It had seemed nice enough until he lay thinking the night before Christmas, and then he wished that he had heard his father and mother talking in time for him to save for something better.

He lay on his side, his head supported by his elbow, and looked out his attic window. The stars were bright, much brighter than he ever remembered seeing them, and one star in particular was so bright that he wondered if it were really the Star of Bethlehem.

"Dad," he had once asked, when he was a little boy, "what is a stable?"

"It’s just a barn," his father had replied, "like ours."

Then Jesus had been born in a barn, and to a barn the shepherds and the Wise Men had come, bringing their Christmas gifts!

The thought had struck him like a silver dagger. Why should he not give his father a special gift too, out there in the barn? He could get up early, earlier than four o’clock, and he could creep into the barn and get all the milking done. He’d do it alone, milk and clean up, and then when his father went in to start the milking he’d see it all done. And he could know who had done it.

He laughed to himself as he gazed at the stars. It was what he would do, and he mustn’t sleep too sound.

He must have waked twenty times, scratching a match each time to look at his old watch--midnight, and half past one, and then two o’clock.

At a quarter to three he got up and put on his clothes. He crept downstairs, careful of the creaky boards, and let himself out. The big star hung lower over the barn roof, a reddish gold. The cows looked at him, sleepy and surprised. It was early for them too.

"So, boss," he whispered. They accepted him placidly, and he fetched some hay for each cow, and then got the milking pail and the big milk cans.

He had never milked all alone before, but it seemed almost easy. He kept thinking about his father’s surprise. His father would come in and call him, saying that he would get things started while Rob was getting dressed. He’d go to the barn, open the door, and then he’d go to get the two big empty milk cans. But they wouldn’t be waiting or empty; they’d be standing in the milkhouse, filled.

"What the--" he could hear his father exclaiming.

He smiled and milked steadily, two strong streams rushing into the pail, frothing and fragrant. The cows were still surprised but acquiescent. For once they were behaving well, as though they knew it was Christmas.

The task went more easily than he had ever known it to before. Milking for once was not a chore. It was something else, a gift to his father, who loved him. He finished, the two milk cans were full, and he covered them and closed the milkhouse door carefully, making sure of the latch, he put the stool in its place by the door and hung up the clean milk pail. Then he went out of the barn and barred the floor behind him.

Back in his room he had only a minute to pull off his clothes in the darkness and jump into bed, for he heard his father up. He put the covers over his head to silence his quick breathing. The door opened.

"Rob!" his father called. "We have to get up, son, even if it is Christmas."

"Aw right," he said sleepily.

"I’ll go on out" his lather said. ‘I’ll get things started." The door closed and he lay still, laughing to himself. In just a few minutes his father would know. His dancing heart was ready to jump from his body.

The minutes were endless -ten, fifteen, he did not know how many--before he heard his father’s footsteps again. The door opened and he lay still.

"Rob!"

"Yes, Dad--"

"Son---" His lather was laughing, a queer, sobbing sort of a laugh. "Thought you’d fool me, did you?" His father was standing beside his bed. feeling for him, pulling away the  cover.

He found his father and clutched him in a great hug. He felt his father’s arms go around him. It was dark and they could not see each other’s faces.

"Son, I thank you. Nobody ever did a nicer thing--"

"Oh, Dad, I want you to know--I do want to be good!" The words broke from him of their own will. He did not know what to say. His heart was bursting with love.

"Well, I reckon I can go back to bed and sleep," his father said after a moment. "No, hark, the little ones are waked up. Come to think of it, son, I’ve never seen you children when you first saw the Christmas tree. I was always in the barn. Come on!"

He got up and pulled on his clothes again, and they went down to the Christmas tree, and soon the sun was creeping up to where the star had been. Oh, what a Christmas, and how his heart had nearly burst again with shyness and pride as his father told his mother and made the younger children listen about how he, Rob, had got up all by himself.

"The best Christmas gift I ever had, and I’ll remember it, son, every, year on Christmas morning, so long as I live."

They had both remembered it, and now that his father was dead he remembered it alone, that blessed Christmas dawn when, alone with the cows in the barn, he had made his first gift of true love.

Outside the window now the great star slowly sank. He got up out of bed and put on his slippers and bathrobe and went softly upstairs to the attic and found the box of Christmas-tree decorations, He took them downstairs into the living room. Then he brought in the tree. It was a little one--they had not had a big tree since the children went away--but he set it in the holder and put it in the middle of the long table under the window. Then carefully he began to trim it.

It was done very soon, the time passing as quickly as it had that morning long ago in the barn. He went to his library, and fetched the little box that contained his special gift to his wife, a star of diamonds, not large but dainty in design. He had written the card for it the day before. He tied the gift on the tree and then stood back. It was pretty, very pretty, and she would be surprised.

But he was not satisfied. He wanted to tell her, to tell her how much he loved her. It had been a long time since he had really told her, although he loved her in a very special way, much more than he ever had when they were young.

He had been fortunate that she had loved him, and how fortunate that he had been able to love! Ah, that was the true joy of life, the ability to love! For he was quite sure that some people were genuinely unable to love anyone. But love was alive in him; it still was.

It occurred to him suddenly that it was alive because long ago it had been born in him when he knew his father loved him. That was it: love alone could waken love.

And he could give the gift again and again. This morning, this blessed Christmas morning, he would give it to his beloved wife. He could write it down in a letter for her to read and keep forever. He went to his desk and began his love letter to his wife: "My dearest love . . . . "

When it was finished he sealed it and tied it on the tree where she would see it the first thing when she came into the room. She would read it, surprised and then moved, and realize how very much he loved her.

He put out the light and went tiptoeing up the stairs. The star in the sky was gone, and the first rays of the sun were gleaming the sky. Such a happy, happy Christmas!

--------------------------------------

Answering an Essay Question

According to "Christmas Day in the Morning," should the past be forgotten or remembered? Write an essay that answers this question. First state your opinion clearly. Then tell how the story shows its attitude about the past. Be sure to use examples from the story to support your opinions.

Geometry: 

You are encouraged to use your calculator.

Line Plots

One of the ways that you can display data is in a line plot. In a line plot, data is organized using a number line.

MINI-LAB

Work with your at-home teacher, friends, and family members who are willing to help.  Round up as many as you can.

You will need a tape measure, masking tape, and a few colored markers.

You are going to make a human plot of heights.

Try This
     Measure and record your at-home teacher's height in inches.
     Use masking tape to place a number line on the floor.  The differences between consecutive numbers should be the same.
     Have each person stand above his or her height on the number line.  People of the same height should stand behind each other in a column.

Talk About It
     Which height has the most people?   How can you tell?
     Which heights had more males or females?
 
--------------------------------

It is usually not practical to arrange people or objects to form a line plot. You can draw a line plot using a symbol to represent each data point.

Zillions magazine compared the taste and price of lemon-flavored iced teas. The teas were ranked very good (VG), good (G), or fair (F). The results are shown in the table.

Tea

 Rating 

Price per
 8-oz serving 

Arizona

Uptown Express

Homemade iced tea

Lipton Brisk

Lipton Iced Tea Mix

Lipton Original

Mistic

Nestea

Nestea Cool

Nestea Iced Tea Mix

Safeway Select

ShopRite

Snapple

Tetley

Tetley Lemon Frost

Twinings Ceylon Blend

Veryfine Chillers

G

G

VG

F

G

G

G

G

F

G

G

G

G

F

VG

G

G

37¢

35¢

21¢

34¢

42¢

37¢

21¢

30¢

23¢

36¢

21¢

36¢

40¢

20¢

To make a line plot of the tea prices, use a number line that includes all of the data values. In this case the least value is 7 and the greatest is 42, so a number line from 0 to 45 is a good choice. Mark an × for each price above the number line to complete the line plot.

 

You can see that there are two groups of prices in which most of the iced teas fall. One group is 20-23 cents per serving, and the other is 34-37 cents per serving. The lowest and highest prices are 7 and 42 cents.

Studying data and making observations is called data analysis. Altering the line plot can show more information about the iced tea prices.

Practice

Make a line plot of the concert ticket prices listed below.

$20

$37

$24

$48

$31

$42

$31

$28

$35

$30

$21

$27

$33

$21

$43

$30

$35

$25

$30

$29

Measures of Central Tendency

If you could visit any place in the world, where would you go? Many people from other countries choose to come to the United States! The table shows how much a foreign tourist spends on a trip to the United States.

Tourist Dollars

Country

Spending
(hundreds of
dollars)

Canada

France

Germany

Italy

Japan

Mexico

United Kingdom 

Venezuela

4

20

22

24

24

4

22

28

Suppose one tourist from each of these countries visits your community. How much would each one spend on average? There are three common ways to describe a set of data. These ways are called the measures of central tendency. They are the mean, the mode, and the median.

Although the word average can be used for any of the measures of central tendency, most people use it to refer to the mean.

For the dollar amounts above, you can find the mean as shown below.

 

The mean amount spent is 18.5 hundreds or $1,850.
Notice that the mean of a set of data may or may not be a member of the set.

  Mean   ----    The mean of a set of data is the sum of the data divided by the number of pieces of data.

-----------

A second measure of central tendency is the mode. The mode is the piece of data that appears most often.

4    4    20    22    22    24    24    28

There are two 4s, two 22s, and two 24s in this set of data. So there are three modes, 4, 22, and 24. If there was another 4 in the data set, 4 would be the only mode. A set of data in which no numbers appear more than once has no mode.  A mode is always a number of the data set.

  Mode           --------     The mode of a set of data is the number or item that appears most often.

-------------------

The final measure of central tendency is the median. The median is the middle number when the data are written in order from least to greatest.

Consider the data set {1, 4, 7, 12, 16, 21, 21, 29, 33}. There are nine numbers in the set, and they are in order from least to greatest. So the median is the fifth number, or 16.

If the number of data is even, as in the set of tourist spending, there are two middle numbers. In that case, the median is the mean of the numbers.

 

The median of the tourist spending is 22 hundreds or $2,200.  The median is not necessarily a member of the set of data.  In this case, it is in the set.

 Median       -------   The median of a set of data is the number in the middle when the data are arranged in order. When there are two middle numbers, the median is their mean.

You can learn more about different sets of data by comparing the mean, median, and mode.

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. When necessary, round to the nearest tenth.

(a) 9, 8, 15, 8, 20, 23, 16, 5, 6, 14, 12, 25, 18, 22, 24

(b) 36, 38, 33, 34, 32, 30, 34, 35

 

Civics 

You are urged to read this lesson several times until each item becomes part of your everyday thinking.  Expect to be required to explain any of these terms on your next test.

The Rights of Citizens

The rights of Americans come from three sources—the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, the laws Congress and state legislatures enact, and the interpretation of those laws by the courts.

Security

Security, in this case, means protection from unfair and unreasonable actions by the government. The government, for example, cannot arrest, imprison, or punish people or search or seize their property without good reason and without following certain rules. As you learned, certain amendments in the Bill of Rights guarantee protection from such government actions. In addition, the principle of "due process of law" protects these rights for all Americans.

Equality

The right of equality means that everyone is entitled to the equal protection of all the laws in the United States. That is, all people have a right to be treated the same regardless of race, religion, or political beliefs. This right, along with that of due process, is found in the Fourteenth Amendment.

Liberty

The rights with which we are most familiar---our fundamental freedoms--fall into this category. Most of these rights are spelled out expressly in the Bill of Rights. Our rights of freedom of expression--freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition--are found in the First Amendment. Our rights to own private property and to a trial by jury are contained in other amendments of the Bill of Rights.

Limits on Rights

Our rights are not unlimited. The government can establish laws or rules to restrict certain rights to protect the health, safety, security, and moral standards of a community. Moreover, rights may be limited to prevent one person’s rights from interfering with the rights of others. The restrictions of rights, however, must be reasonable and must apply to everyone equally.

The Civil Rights Movement

In the 1950s and 1960s, many African Americans began an organized fight for their rights as citizens, or civil rights, rights that they been deprived of since the end of the Civil War. The civil rights movement resulted in the passage of several new federal and state laws that have increased the rights not only of African Americans but also of all citizens.

Discrimination

Up to the 1960s, many state laws, particularly in the southern states, denied African Americans the same rights as other Americans. These laws allowed the states to practice discrimination, or unfair and less equal treatment toward a particular group. Some states in the South, for example, forced African American students to attend separate schools and colleges. African Americans were required to ride in the back of buses and sit in separate sections in theaters and restaurants. They also had to use separate public rest rooms and water fountains and even stay at separate hotels.

The Civil Rights Act

The civil rights struggle resulted in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This act gave African Americans equal protection under the law, as guaranteed in the Constitution. The act banned discrimination against African Americans in employment, voting, and public accommodations. This law, enacted to protect one group, also expanded the rights of everyone. It banned discrimination not only by race and color but also by sex, religion, or national origin.

The Voting Rights Act

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 empowered the federal government to intervene in places where African Americans were discriminated against in voter registration. Although the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution gave African American males the right to vote, that right was not well enforced. By the 1960s, several states had found ways, such as the poll tax, to discourage African Americans from registering and voting. Since the passage of the Voting Rights Act, African American voter registration has risen sharply. The law has also helped Hispanic Americans and other minorities register to vote.

Affirmative Action

New federal laws have also helped expand our rights through affirmative action. Affirmative action means taking special steps to help minorities and women gain access to jobs and opportunities that were denied them in the past because of discrimination. According to federal law, governments must apply affirmative action to give priority to hiring and promoting women and minorities in certain areas.

Equal Protection

The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution reaffirmed the principle of due process and established the idea of equal protection under the law. It did much more than that, however. It made the Constitution and the Bill of Rights apply not only to federal laws, but to state laws as well.
 

The Duties and Responsibilities of Citizens

Duties

Obey the Laws

This is a citizen’s most important duty. If citizens do not obey the law, the government cannot maintain order and protect the health, safety, and property of its citizens. The laws we must obey, including criminal laws, traffic laws, and local laws, all have a purpose. Criminal laws are designed to prevent citizens from harming one another; traffic laws prevent accidents; and local laws help people get along with one another.

Pay Taxes

Taxes pay for the government’s activities. Without them, the federal government could not pay its employees, maintain an army and navy to defend its citizens, or help those in need. Your city could not hire police or firefighters, and your state could not pave roads or maintain prisons.

Defend the Nation

In the United States, all men aged 18 and over are required to register with the government in case the country needs to draft, or call up, men for military service. Since the end of the Vietnam War, there has been no draft, and America’s military has been volunteer. Nevertheless, the government has the authority to use the draft if the country should suddenly have to go to war.

Serve in Court

The Constitution guarantees every citizen the right to a trial by jury. To ensure this, every citizen must be prepared to serve on a jury. People can ask to be excused from jury duty if they have a good reason, but it is better to serve if possible. People on trial depend on their fellow citizens to render a fair and just verdict at their trials. Another duty of citizens is to serve as witnesses at a trial, if called to do so.

Attend School

In most states, people are required to attend school until age 16. This is important both to you and to the government because school is where you acquire much of the knowledge and skills you will need to be a good citizen.

Responsibilities

Be Informed

Keep in mind that government exists to serve you. Therefore, one of your responsibilities as a citizen is to know what the government is doing and to voice your opinion when you feel strongly about something the government has done or has failed to do. When the government learns that most people favor or oppose an action, it usually follows their wishes.

Vote

Voting is one of American citizens’ most important responsibilities. By voting, people exercise their right of self-government. Voters choose the people who run the government, and in doing so, they give their consent to that government. If people do not like the way an elected official is doing his or her job, it is their responsibility to choose someone else in the next election. Taking the responsibility to vote ensures that leadership is changed in a peaceful, orderly manner.

Participate in Government

Another responsibility of citizens is to participate in their community and in their government. Participating in your government and community is extremely important.

Respect Rights of Others

To enjoy your rights to the fullest, you must be prepared to respect other people’s rights as well. For example, if you live in an apartment building, you have an obligation to keep the volume on your radio or television down so that it does not disturb your neighbors. You also expect them to do the same for you. Many of our laws have been enacted to encourage people to respect each other’s rights. A person who continues to play a radio or television too loudly can be arrested for disturbing the peace.

Respect Diversity

Citizens have a responsibility to respect the rights of people with whom they disagree. Respecting and accepting others, regardless of their beliefs, practices, or other differences, is called toleration. It means giving people whose ideas you dislike a chance to express their opinions. Without toleration for the views of others, a real discussion or exchange of ideas is impossible. Under a democratic system of government, everyone should have a say. It is then up to the people to choose sensible ideas and discard offensive ones.

Exercise:

Define: Equal Protection, Affirmative Action, Discrimination, Liberty,  Equality,  and Security.

1.  What are the responsibilities of a citizen?

2. What are the duties of a citizen?

3. What are the rights of a citizen?

 

 

Why We Use Machines

What are machines?

Have you used any machines today? You probably know that a bicycle is a machine. Pencil sharpeners and can openers are also machines. If you have turned a doorknob or twisted off a bottle cap, you have used a machine. A machine is a device that makes work easier.

Keeping it Simple

Some machines are powered by engines or electric motors; others are people-powered. Some machines are complex; others are simple. A simple machine is a device that does work with only one movement. There are six types of simple machines. You’ll learn more about each type.

Advantages of Simple Machines

Suppose you wanted to pry the lid off a wooden crate with a crowbar. You’d slip the end of the crowbar blade under the edge of the crate lid and push down on the handle. You would do work on the crowbar, and the crowbar would do work on the lid.

KNOW

Machines make work easier by changing the force you exert in size, direction, or both.

The Simple Machines

Levers

If you’ve ever ridden a seesaw, pried the cap from a bottle of soda pop, or swung a tennis racket, you have used a lever. A lever is a bar that is free to pivot, or turn, about a fixed point. The fixed point of a lever is called the fulcrum. The part of the lever on which the effort force is applied is called the effort arm. The part of the lever that exerts the resistance force is called the resistance arm.

 

Suppose you are using a tire tool to pry the tire from a bicycle wheel before you change the tire. You push down on the effort arm of the tire tool. The tool pivots about the fulcrum, and the resistance arm exerts a force on the tire, lifting it upward.

Pulling with Pulleys

Have you ever seen someone raise a flag on a flagpole? A pulley is used to help get the flag to the top of the pole. A pulley is a grooved wheel with a rope or a chain running along the groove.

A pulley works something like a first-class lever, instead of a bar, a pulley has a rope. The axle of the pulley acts like the fulcrum. The two sides of the pulley are the effort arm and the resistance arm.

Wheel and Axle

Look closely at a doorknob or the handle of a water faucet. Do you recognize these as simple machines? Do they seem to make work easier? If you don’t think so, remove the knob or handle from its narrow shaft. Now, try opening the door or turning on the water by rotating that shaft with your fingers. After a few minutes, you’ll appreciate the fact that the knob and handle, together with their shafts, are machines. They do make work easier.

Inclined Plane

Suppose you had to move a heavy box from the ground up onto a porch. Would you rather lift the box straight up or slide it up a ramp. The ramp would make your job easier. A ramp is a type of inclined plane, which is a sloping surface used to raise objects.

The amount of work done on the box is the same whether you lift it straight up or slide it up the ramp. But remember that work has two parts--force and distance. When you lift the box straight up, the distance is small, but the force is large. Using the ramp, you cover more distance, but you exert less force.

You can calculate ideal mechanical advantage of an inclined plane using distances.

IMA =

     effort distance    

=

length of slope

=

 l 

resistance distance

height of slope

 h

The Screw

The screw and the wedge are examples of inclined planes that move. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post. If you look closely at a screw, you’ll see that the threads form a tiny ramp that runs from its tip to near its top. As you turn the screw, the threads seem to pull the screw into the wood. The wood seems to slide up the inclined plane. Actually, the plane slides through the wood.

The Wedge

A wedge is an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides. Chisels, knives, and ax blades are examples. A typical inclined plane stays in one place while materials move along its surface. A wedge is a moving inclined plane. The material remains in one place while the wedge moves through it.

Perhaps you’ve noticed that the six types of simple machines are all variations of two basic machines--the lever and the inclined plane.

Exercise:

As you go about your daily activities, look for examples of each type of simple machine. Write a list and tell how each makes work easier

 

The History and Development of American Home Entertainment     

Click here:  America Goes to War

In 1941 Pear Harbor was attacked and the United States declared war on Japan.  Hitler was already waging war in Europe.  In a few short years, the entire world was enveloped in combat that would not end until 1945.  An enormous percentage of American young men were serving in the armed services, and many would never return home.

Music records made before the war became valuable.  There was no material for manufacturing many frivolities.  Almost every raw material was needed for the war effort.  Almost every industry had converted their equipment to manufacture items needed to win the war. 

The big band sound was the rage at the start of the war.  But even the bandleaders were called into the Army and Navy.  Glenn Miller, perhaps the most famous, was killed in a plane crash in the English Channel.  But toward the end of the war, new words and phrases were creeping into our vocabularies, words like jazz, beebop, and jitterbug, and phrases like all reet, and eight to the bar.

American music, once the controlled realm of the American adult was beginning to lean toward younger tastes.  Radio boasted a new type of announcer, something called a disk jockey.  And between news of bombings and victories, America's youngsters tuned into Martin Block and his Make-Believe Ballroom.

Girls wore bobby socks and the boys began wearing Levies to school.  Can you imagine the nerve?  School boards began talking seriously about dress codes.  But on Saturday evenings, the shoes came off and the bobby socks jitterbugged to the scarce records played at the sock-hops, and slow-danced to the few new records and songs, almost all about the war and hopes for it to end.

John Wayne and almost all of Hollywood were also busy winning the war with a series of patriotic movies that has never been equaled since.  Even Humphry Bogart got into the effort with Casablanca.

In England, young soldiers stared into the screens of a new and secret device called radar.  Little did they know that this technology that helped win the war by detecting aircraft would soon be winning the peace as something called television.

Would the world ever be the same again?  Not a chance.  When these young men came back from winning the war, they were going to demand to be heard.  They were going to be the ones who decided what music should sound like, what movies should look like, and broadcasts would carry programs that they wanted to hear.  Youth was going to capture the entertainment industry.  And indeed they did.

END